In the HVAC and building performance industry, you will hear the terms CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute), ACH (Air Changes per Hour) and ACH50 (Air Changes per Hour at 50 Pascals) thrown around a lot and it’s important that you understand the differences.
CFM is a measurement of volume (not mass) flow rate, the cubic feet of air moving per minute. To convert CFM to cubic feet per hour you simply multiply by 60 and to convert cubic feet per hour to CFM you divide by 60. When measuring air flow we generally convert air velocity (speed) to CFM by simply measuring the velocity (FPM) and multiplying that by the opening we are measuring.
For example, if we are measuring an air velocity in a duct of 700 FPM (feet per minute) and the duct is 24″ x 24″ (2’x 2′) that would be a square footage of 4 x 700 = 2,800 CFM (Cubic Feet Per minute). If we needed to calculate cubic feet per hour we would multiply that by 60 (minutes in an hour) and the result would be 2,800 CFM x 60 = 168,000 CFH (Cubic Feet per Hour)
Like we talked about in a recent article air changes per hour is often used to calculate ventilation requirements for a room or structure. Let’s imagine there was a dining room that required 5 air changes per hour (CFH) for proper ventilation. If that dining room was 10′ x 10′ x 10′ that would equal 1,000 cubic feet of internal volume in the space. This means that we would need to provide that room with 5,000 cubic feet of “new” air every hour to hit that number. 5,000 CFH ÷ 60 minutes per hour = 83.33 CFM of airflow to hit that target.
When discussing ACH within a space for ventilation it can often get confused with discussing ACH with outdoor ventilation air for healthy air dilution via mechanical ventilation or with undesigned infiltration through a loose envelope shell.
ACH for ventilation of specific rooms within a structure, ACH for designed outdoor air ventilation and ACH50 for envelope infiltration testing should not be mixed up or you will find yourself being very confused
All of these ACH measurements are simply a calculation of the cubic volume of a space dived by air volume moving in and out of a space in an hour. The question is, is the air from inside the structure or outside of the structure and when/how is it being brought in.
A blower door is used primarily to measure infiltration of outdoor air into a structure. In order to compare the “tightness” one structure to another. The common standard for measurement is 50 pascals of negative pressure in the structure in reference to the outside.
In other words, you use a big fan placed in an exterior door with a fine-tuned manometer and you run the fan at a rate that gets the building down to 50 pascals of negative pressure. You then calculate how much air is moving through the blower (in CFM) and convert CFM to CFH by multiplying by 60. You calculate the internal cubic feet of the structure and divide that number into the calculated CFH to come up with the ACH50 number. This is simply the air changes per hour of the structure at 50 pascals of negative pressure. A higher number means more infiltration (loose) and a lower number means less infiltration (tight).
This ACH50 number ONLY applies when the house is under a pretty strong negative pressure, it doesn’t actually tell you how much air is moving in and out of the space under normal operating conditions.