Tag: air changes

This photo is of a blower door test we performed at my own house using a Retrotec blower door. You will notice the 15 passenger van outside the window which is a dead giveaway.

A blower door is used to measure the tightness of a building and is often discussed in terms of an ACH50 number that many will simply refer to as the “blower door number”.

What is this secret number and what does it mean?

In the HVAC and building performance industry, you will hear the terms CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute), ACH (Air Changes per Hour) and ACH50 (Air Changes per Hour at 50 Pascals) thrown around a lot and it’s important that you understand the differences.


CFM is a measurement of volume (not mass) flow rate, the cubic feet of air moving per minute. To convert CFM to cubic feet per hour you simply multiply by 60 and to convert cubic feet per hour to CFM you divide by 60. When measuring air flow we generally convert air velocity (speed) to CFM by simply measuring the velocity  (FPM) and multiplying that by the opening we are measuring.

For example, if we are measuring an air velocity in a duct of 700 FPM (feet per minute) and the duct is 24″ x 24″ (2’x 2′) that would be a square footage of 4 x 700 = 2,800 CFM (Cubic Feet Per minute). If we needed to calculate cubic feet per hour we would multiply that by 60 (minutes in an hour) and the result would be 2,800 CFM x 60 = 168,000 CFH (Cubic Feet per Hour)


Like we talked about in a recent article air changes per hour is often used to calculate ventilation requirements for a room or structure.  Let’s imagine there was a dining room that required 5 air changes per hour (CFH) for proper ventilation. If that dining room was 10′ x 10′ x 10′ that would equal 1,000 cubic feet of internal volume in the space. This means that we would need to provide that room with 5,000 cubic feet of “new” air every hour to hit that number. 5,000 CFH ÷ 60 minutes per hour = 83.33 CFM of airflow to hit that target.

When discussing ACH within a space for ventilation it can often get confused with discussing ACH with outdoor ventilation air for healthy air dilution via mechanical ventilation or with undesigned infiltration through a loose envelope shell.

ACH for ventilation of specific rooms within a structure, ACH for designed outdoor air ventilation and ACH50 for envelope infiltration testing should not be mixed up or you will find yourself being very confused   

All of these ACH measurements are simply a calculation of the cubic volume of a space dived by air volume moving in and out of a space in an hour. The question is, is the air from inside the structure or outside of the structure and when/how is it being brought in.


A blower door is used primarily to measure infiltration of outdoor air into a structure. In order to compare the “tightness” one structure to another. The common standard for measurement is 50 pascals of negative pressure in the structure in reference to the outside.

In other words, you use a big fan placed in an exterior door with a fine-tuned manometer and you run the fan at a rate that gets the building down to 50 pascals of negative pressure.  You then calculate how much air is moving through the blower (in CFM) and convert CFM to CFH by multiplying by 60. You calculate the internal cubic feet of the structure and divide that number into the calculated CFH to come up with the ACH50 number. This is simply the air changes per hour of the structure at 50 pascals of negative pressure. A higher number means more infiltration (loose)  and a lower number means less infiltration (tight).

This ACH50 number ONLY applies when the house is under a pretty strong negative pressure, it doesn’t actually tell you how much air is moving in and out of the space under normal operating conditions.

— Bryan

P.S. – For those of you wondering my house has an ACH50 # of 3.2, while this isn’t great by building performance practitioner standards,  I’m happy with it…. and as the great philosopher Cheryl Crow said, “If it makes me happy, it can’t be that bad”



Air changes per hr (ACH / ACPH) simply describes how many times the quantity of air in a room (or structure) is completely replaced per hour.

If you have a 10’x10’x10′ room, the room contains 1000 cubic feet of air If the supply and return to the room is supplying a balanced 100 cfm (cubic feet per minute) of air to the room you would have 100 cfm x 60 minutes = 6,000 cfh (cubic feet per hour) which would equal 6 air changes per hour (6,000/1000 = 6).

Different spaces have different ventilation requirements based on occupancy level (how many people are in the room) and use type. This is a fairly simple thing to calculate based on the cubic feet of air in a room, this is NOT the heat gain /loss of the space, it is only the ventilation rate of the space. Generally, ACH is used as a guideline or reference for design and not as a basis for the design, a sort of solid rule of thumb used to check a ventilation design against the real world.

This ventilation rate also shouldn’t be confused with the outdoor air requirements which is a different, but related consideration and is based on ASHRAE 62.1 and 62.2.

In some cases when discussing ventilation for an entire structure ACH will be used as a means to describe “tightness” and is referenced in many codes as a standard for the structure. For example, when performing a blower door test a building test professional will use an air changes number to demonstrate whether a home or building is built to a tightness standard and how much supplemental outdoor air needs to be added to the space per hour.

Even more specifically a standard called ACH50 is used with a blower door to calculate the leak rate of a structure when the space is pulled into negative 50 pascals of pressure by the blower door and the leak rate calculated.

In most cases, a room/zone will be sized for airflow according to the heat gain/loss to include outdoor air requirements and then the ventilation requirements will dictate the need for additional mechanical ventilation and/or fan on position to provide the required air changes per hour.

The main point being, don’t simply provide a room with system airflow that is consistent with air change per hour rule of thumb and assume it will be properly conditioned and balanced… like with most things it isn’t that simple.

— Bryan



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