Michael Housh from Housh Home Energy Experts shares with HVAC School. This is an detailed demonstration of how to Make a Metal Duct Transition in the Field.
Checkout Housh Home Energy Experts: https://www.houshhomeenergy.com/
Michael Housh from Housh Home Energy Experts shares with HVAC School. This is an detailed demonstration of how to Make a Metal Duct Transition in the Field.
Checkout Housh Home Energy Experts: https://www.houshhomeenergy.com/
Before I start on this one… At HVAC School we focus on a wide range of topics, many of them are very basic. My experience as a trainer for over 16 years has taught me that no matter what I assume others SHOULD know, it doesn’t change that fact that they often do not. This write up is very basic but you may find that some of the content will be useful for you to give apprentices or junior techs or it may give you a new idea of how to explain it to them… or maybe not. Either way, I feel an obligation to cover even the most basic concepts in the trade to help ensure that nothing gets missed.
Thanks for understanding.
Next, you need to know something of the basic refrigerant circuit, I suggest that you understand these words and concepts before you ever dive into attempting to charge an air conditioner. Many who start here may ask “what should my pressures be”, this is NOT how you charge a system so if you are reading this to try and find that answer just be aware, it isn’t that simple.
READ THE MANUFACTURER SPECS ON PROPER CHARGING FOR THE MODEL YOU ARE WORKING ON FIRST WHENEVER POSSIBLE
In order to set a proper charge on an A/C system, you must first know the type of metering device. The piston / fixed orifice type system primarily uses the superheat method and the TXV / EEV primarily uses the subcooling method. When setting a charge, it is always preferable to set the charge in cool mode. Whether you set the charge in heat or cool mode, you should always follow the manufacturer’s recommended charging specifications. In this section, we will discuss manufacturer-recommended charging and some indicators that you have set a proper charge in heat mode.
But first, There are some things that Trump these guidelines and should make you stop and do more diagnosis
A properly running A/C system with indoor and outdoor temperatures above 68 degrees will have a suction saturation above 32 degrees (freezing), don’t leave a system with a below 32˚ saturation suction without doing more diagnosis even if the superheat/subcool looks correct.
If you see a liquid line pressure that is more than 30 degrees saturation above outdoor temperature (like a 440 psi liquid pressure on an R410a system on a 90 degree day), do not proceed until you have further addressed the possible causes of high head, regardless of what the superheat or subcool might be reading.
Always purge your hoses to prevent introducing air into the system and never mix gauges when using low loss fittings and different types of refrigerants.
Charge in the liquid phase (tank upside down) and add the refrigerant slowly and carefully to ensure you do not flood/slug the compressor with liquid refrigerant. You can do this by watching your manifold sight glass or using a special liquid preventing adapter such as the Imperial 535-C Kwik Charge.
These precautions will prevent causing system damage.
Also, at a minimum doing a full visual inspection of the equipment including
Note: This is only a basic guide for charging. There are innumerable conditions that can alter refrigerant pressures, superheat, subcool and saturation that are not related to the refrigerant charge. This is not intended to cover the complete diagnosis of the refrigerant circuit.
To charge a system using superheat, you will need to monitor the actual temperature of the low-pressure suction line, the saturation temperature of the low side suction gauge and the indoor and outdoor temperatures entering the unit(s).
Most if not all manufacturers have a charging chart available with their respective units. With the information you have gathered on indoor and outdoor temperatures, you can calculate the recommended superheat or in a pinch, you can use a superheat calculator such as the Trane superheat calculator or a free app like our superheat calculator or even better the MeasureQuick app. A good calculator will require that you determine the wet bulb temperature in the return air stream. Without a sling or digital psychrometer or hygrometer, you will not be able to determine wet bulb temperature.
Once you know the target superheat you can adjust the system charge to hit it. Let’s say, the recommended superheat was 18 degrees, you would add/remove refrigerant to the system until the actual temperature of the suction line was 18 degrees above the indicated saturation temperature from your low-pressure gauge. Adding charge will decrease the superheat and recovering refrigerant will increase the superheat.
To charge a system using subcool, you will need to monitor the actual temperature of the liquid line and indicated saturation temperature on the high-pressure gauge. Information on the entering temperatures is not necessary to charge the unit by the subcooling method.
Most manufacturers have recommended subcool charging information with the units if it is designed for a TXV (TEV). If for some reason, there is no information with the unit, or if it has worn off, you can set a typical residential air conditioner charge to 10 to 12 degrees of subcooling which is a relatively safe range to use.
Let’s say for example the manufacturers recommended subcool is 14, you would add enough refrigerant to the system so the actual temperature of the liquid line was 14 degrees less than the saturation temperature, as indicated on the high-pressure gauge for that particular refrigerant. Adding more refrigerant will increase the subcool reading and recovering refrigerant will decrease the subcool reading.
Lennox factory information asks that we charge by the approach method on TXV systems. I suggest charging to at least a 6˚ subcool before even attempting to calculate the approach method.
The approach method is a calculation based on the relationship of liquid line temperature to outdoor temperature. To calculate approach, subtract outdoor ambient from actual liquid line temperature. The outdoor temperature used to calculate approach should always be taken in the shade and away from the hot condenser discharge air. To increase the approach differential you would remove refrigerant to decrease it you would add refrigerant.
Some Lennox heat pump systems come with a subcool chart next to the approach chart. This subcool chart is for < 65˚. This means the subcool chart is only valid when the outdoor temperature is below 65˚. Follow the instructions on the unit carefully when charging in subcooling in <65˚ temperatures. The method requires that you block sections of the coil to achieve higher head pressures before setting by subcooling.
In most, if not all, cases you will charge a unit in heat mode according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. In those cases where no information is available, there are other indicators that you may use to set a proper charge in heat mode.
First, make sure you switch your hoses so the suction gauge is reading off of the “common suction” port that taps in between the compressor and reversing valve. You may put your high side gauge on either the discharge or liquid (on most systems) depending on what you are checking.
Before doing any heat mode charging use common sense, if installing a new system the best bet is to calculate line distance and weigh in any additional charge before moving on to the detailed testing phase.
The first one is the 100˚ over ambient discharge temperature rule. The general rule to this is that a properly charged unit will have a discharge line temperature of 100˚ above the outdoor ambient temperature but this only a rule of thumb and cannot be relied upon. If the discharge line is too hot. you would add refrigerant which would lower the discharge temperature. Alternately, if the discharge line were too cool, you would remove refrigerant to raise the discharge temperature. This rule is to be used only as an indicator and, in some instances, may not be accurate given some other factors such as dirty coils, excessive superheated refrigerant entering the compressor, etc.
Another common rule of thumb is suction pressure will be close to the outdoor temperature in an R-22 system, this is totally a fluke and has no scientific basis other than it just generally tends to work out that way. this means that on a properly functioning R22 system if it is running in heat mode and its 40 degrees outside the suction pressure tends to be around 40psig. This guideline obviously doesn’t work on an R-410A system or any other refrigerant.
A more applicable guideline is 20˚- 25˚ suction saturation below outdoor ambient temperature. This means if it is 50˚ outside the suction saturation temperature would generally be between 25˚and 30˚on a functioning system.
Remember that in heat mode the colder it gets outside, the lower the suction pressure and the hotter it gets inside, the higher the head pressure. Since the roles of the coil are reversed in heat mode, if you notice an abnormally high head pressure it may be due to a dirty air filter or evaporator coil. A dirty condenser coil would cause the suction pressure to drop below normal and also cause superheat problems.
Once heat mode a charge is set, whether by manufacturer specification or an alternative method, you can still verify the subcool and superheat on the unit in some cases. Do not confuse the superheat or subcool methods recommended by the manufacturer though when running in heat mode. These are only used for setting the charge in cooling mode and not in heat. Look for heat mode specific or low ambient guidelines.
Finally and most importantly is ALWAYS TEST EVERYTHING. Airflow, Delta T, Superheat, Subcool, Suction Pressure, Head pressure, Amps, Incoming voltage, Filter etc…
Read manufacturers specs, understand the units the units you are working on, only then will guidelines and rules of thumb help instead of hinder you.
This is the second article in a three-part series, where Advanced Psychrometrics are explored. The source material for each of the articles in this series is ACCA Manual P Sections 3, 4, and 5. This article is based on information found in Section 4.
If you followed the previous Advanced Psychrometrics article, you now know how to use a Psych Chart to plot a Room Sensible Heat Ratio (RSHR) Line, and how to calculate Design Room CFM. However, if you followed that exercise, you will note the absence of real-world variables, such as ventilation and bypass factors. Equipment Sensible Heat Ratios are almost never an exact match to the RSHR. This exercise will account for these variables, and walk you through how to plot these properties on a Psychrometric Chart.
It is worth reminding you that this is an exercise to help illustrate the complexities of psychrometry in the real world. This may not always be a practical method utilized in the design process.
When outdoor ventilation air is mixed with return air before the equipment coil, the equipment is exposed to latent and sensible loads beyond that of just the conditioned space. This characteristic causes the Coil Sensible Heat Ratio (CSHR) to alter from the RSHR. Remember, the Room Design Conditions will be met only when the supply air properties fall on the RSHR Line. With two different SHRs, we no longer have the luxury of choosing any supply condition we wish. The supply air must be able to cool and dehumidify the space. It also must now compensate for the additional load introduced by the ventilation air. Therefore, the only supply condition that will satisfy the Room Design Condition is the point at which both the RSHR Line and CSHR Line meet on the Psych Chart.
To plot the RSHR Line should be a breeze at this point. For a review on that process, and the first part of this article series, CLICK HERE.
The construction of the CSHR Line, however, is a bit more involved. There is a little trial and error in the construction of the CSHR Line. It’s not impossible, of course, and with practice, you get pretty good at nailing it on the first try. Here’s why a trial and error process is required in order to plot the CSHR Line:
This is why a trial and error process is required. Simply put, we’re going to use an estimated guess as to what we think our supply air condition will be, then follow the process until we can determine if our selection actually results in the intersection of the CSHR and RSHR Lines. To help aid in the accuracy of your guess, keep in mind that, on average, a Direct Exchange Fan Coil can provide supply air temperatures which may fall between 14-25 degrees below the space temperature at typical relative humidities between 80% and 95%.
To begin this exercise, let’s start with some basic information, which will ALWAYS be available to you from a quality load calculation. This information can be plotted on the Psych Chart with complete certainty:
Room Sensible Heat: 21,700 BTUh
Room Latent Heat: 2,300 BTUh
Room Total Heat: 24,000 BTUh
Room Design Condition: 75℉ db / 50% RH
Outdoor Design Condition: 95℉ db / 75℉ wb
Ventilation Required: 245 CFM
In this scenario, a Room-to-Room load calculation has been done on a home. The RSHRs have all been averaged together for a mean room sensible heat ratio. We can go ahead and plot what we can on the chart:
Let’s select a 57℉ supply temperature at about 90% RH. Now we can determine the Supply CFM. Since the RSHR is the average of the entire home, the Supply CFM will equal the total system CFM.
CFM = Room Sensible Load ÷ (1.08 x ΔT)
21,700 ÷ (1.08 x 18) = 1,116 CFM
Now that we know the Supply CFM, we can calculate the percentage of ventilation air.
Ventilation = 245 CFM ÷ 1,116 CFM
Ventilation = 22%
We have a good bit of information here now, but the math starts to get a little confusing without explanation. We now know that 22% of Outdoor Air (at 95℉ db / 75℉ wb) will be mixing with the remaining 78% Return Air (at 75℉ db / 50% RH). To calculate the Mixed Air Condition, complete the following equation:
MAT = (0.22 x 95℉) + (0.78 x 75℉)
MAT = 20.9℉ + 58.5℉
MAT = 79.4℉
We can now plot the Mixed Air Condition on the Psych Chart.
At this point, we have everything we need to construct the Coil Sensible Heat Ratio Line. If you notice on the Psych Chart, there is a list of helpful formulas to the left of the page. We need to solve for Total Coil Heat Load (Qt) if we are to determine Coil Sensible Heat Load (Qs) and CSHR. To do that, we need to figure out the change in enthalpy (ΔH). Enthalpy is heat energy in BTUs per pound of dry air.
ΔH = 30.6 – 23.4
ΔH = 7.2
Now let’s plug our ΔH into the Total Coil Heat Load calculation. (4.5 here is Air Density x Run Time in minutes. 0.075 x 60 = 4.5)
Qt = 4.5 x CFM x ΔH
Qt = 4.5 x 1,116 x 7.2
Qt = 36,158 BTUh
Solve for Coil Sensible Heat Load. To do this, make sure you are using the entering air condition the equipment will actually see: MAT.
Qs = 1.08 x CFM x ΔT
Qs = 1.08 x 1,116 x 22.5
Qs = 27,119 BTUh
We can finally solve for Coil Sensible Heat Ratio at this point:
CSHR = Coil Sensible Load ÷ Total Coil Load
CSHR = 27,119 BTUh ÷ 36,158 BTUh
CSHR = 0.75
We can now plot the CSHR Line on the Psych Chart.
If you look closely, you may be thinking, “Wait a second, the CSHR Line does not intersect with the RSHR Line.” You would be absolutely correct. This is why the trial and error solution is necessary. However, if you notice, the CSHR Line is extremely close to our selected supply temperature. The CSHR Line is just slightly above the RSHR Line.
What does this mean?
We can still use the design CFM and supply condition, and the equipment will satisfy the sensible load, but will maintain a slightly higher humidity level in the space than what was designed. Take a look at the actual grains of moisture for the Mixed Air Condition in comparison to the Supply Air off the coil at 57℉.
The equipment will be able to dehumidify from 73 grains of moisture/lb of dry air down to 63 grains of moisture, rather than the ideal 62 grains. We’re talking about a difference of 1 grain of moisture. This can be acceptable, and the difference likely unnoticeable. In cases where a coil selection will not match the latent load requirements of a space, a viable option would be to add supplemental dehumidification to deal with the remaining latent load. Ultra-Aire Ventilating Dehumidifiers are an excellent option, and will also help lessen the additional latent load from the ventilation air.
Lastly, let’s talk about Bypass Factor. Remember, the ideal supply temperature would be the apparatus (equipment) dew point. However, there is a small percentage of air that will bypass the coil and not transfer its heat to the coil. This can be calculated using the known apparatus dew point. The Bypass Factor formula is as follows:
Bypass Factor = (Supply Air Temperature – Apparatus Dew Point) ÷ (Mixed Air Temperature – Apparatus Dew Point)
Bypass Factor = (57 – 53.5) ÷ (79.4 – 53.5)
Bypass Factor = 3.5 ÷ 25.9
Bypass Factor = 0.14
At this point, you would need to look up a manufacturer’s extended performance data for their equipment to ensure that the coil you select will meet a sensible capacity of 27,119 BTUh and a total capacity of 36,158 BTUh at 1,116 CFM, with an entering condition of 79.4℉ db / 65.6℉ wb and an outdoor condition of 95℉ db / 75℉ wb. Let me translate that to something you might actually see on a Performance Table:
Entering Air Condition: 80℉ db / 67℉ wb
Outdoor Air Conditions: 95℉ / 75℉ wb
Total Capacity: 36,000 BTUh
Sensible Capacity: 27,000 BTUh
Airflow: 1,100 CFM
If you can select a coil that will match these criteria, you will be able to maintain an indoor air condition that is nominally close to your design.
To see how this chart would look in another scenario (without going through the step-by-step process), here is a psych chart based on my house and ASHRAE Design Conditions:
Room Sensible Heat: 16,800 BTUh
Room Latent Heat: 7,200 BTUh
Room Total Heat: 24,000 BTUh
Room Design Conditions: 75℉ db / 50% RH
Outdoor Design Conditions: 90℉ db / 80℉ wb
Ventilation Requirement: 46 CFM
In this case, my selected supply air condition happened to fall perfectly at the intersection of the CSHR and RSHR Lines. The tricky part, however, is finding a coil that will meet the sensible and latent heat requirements under the design conditions. I would need to look for a coil with 18,000 BTUh sensible capacity and 29,000 BTUh total capacity. I’d have to settle for a 2.5 ton (30,000 BTUh) coil with a close CSHR under design conditions, and potentially add supplemental dehumidification. (A Carrier FB4C–030 would actually fit the bill quite nicely.) Remember, the equipment selection performance table will have actual capacities that differ from the nominal rating; thus, care must be taken when using manufacturer performance tables to select equipment.
If you’ve made it to the end of this exercise, congratulations: you are as nerdy as they come! I hope this helps illustrate the complexities of psychrometrics. If nothing else, the take away should be a new-found respect for psychrometrics, and its integration into a technician’s daily diagnostic toolbag.
Stay tuned for Part 3, where we will dive into ACCA Manual P, Section 5. There we will learn how to account for duct gains, and how reheat dehumidification looks on a Psych Chart.
We are joined by two of the great air and infiltration expert minds of our time, Gary Nelson and Steve Rogers from TEC (The Energy Conservatory) to talk about blower door testing and how it compares to real-life infiltration.
There has never been a more complicated and confusing time surrounding refrigerants that what we are in right now.
We are seeing flammable HC (Hydrocarbon) refrigerants with increasing regularity and EPA rules that just changed appear to be changing again
With all this tumultuous change it’s important to know what to look for in refrigerants and what makes a good refrigerant in the first place.
A good refrigerant –
That pretty much sums it up
Because we have seen increased environmental regulations over the last 25 years there has been a push to find good refrigerants even if it means going into the flammable and toxic spectrum.
Thankfully, refrigerants are well marked and so long as we pay attention and follow best practices there shouldn’t be any issues.
The markings are pretty simple
A refrigerants have low toxicity
B refrigerants have high toxicity
1 refrigerants have low flammability
2L refrigerants are only “mildly” flammable
2 refrigerants are low flammability but higher than 2L
3 refrigerants are highly flammable
The most common toxic refrigerant is Ammonia and you would generally only find it in old appliances or in large industrial applications.
Propane (R290) is a flammable refrigerant and it is becoming quite popular in small self-contained refrigeration units like vending machines and reach-in coolers. These propane units will be very clearly marked and should be handled with extreme caution, especially when electrical sparks or open flame are or could be present.
True Refrigeration has some good training materials on R290 such as this video
As refrigerants become more toxic and flammable it becomes more and more important that we evacuate the system properly to get oxygen out of the system and that we make sure the systems are free of leaks.
Skilled and well-trained techs will ALWAYS be needed in our trade and never more than now.
This is the first of a three-part series of articles, which will dive deep into Advanced Psychrometrics. The source material for each of these articles may be found in ACCA Manual P Sections 3, 4, and 5. This article is based on information found in Section 3.
Psychrometrics is the study of the physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures. In HVAC/R, we are specifically interested in air-moisture mixtures, and how varying properties affect human comfort and equipment performance. The Psychrometric Chart is a tool used to describe all the possible combinations of gas-vapor mixtures, and can be used to calculate the sensible and latent loads associated with HVAC/R equipment.
Using a Psychrometric Chart can be a bit confusing at first, but with practice and familiarity of the formulas, a Psych Chart can be easily used for a wide variety of purposes. Basic Psychrometric education can be found in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technologies Manual (RACT) and in the first two sections of ACCA Manual P. In this article, however, I’m going to show you how you can apply psychrometrics to calculating Design Room CFM and illustrate how psychrometry can be used to help a technician understand supply air properties. All of the information discussed here can be found in Section 3 of ACCA Manual P.
When selecting equipment for a home or building, it is recommended a Room-to-Room Heat Load Calculation be done as opposed to a Block Load Calculation (Wrightsoft is an excellent software for load calculations, just saying). Room-to-Room calculations result in a more accurate representation of the heat gains and losses per zone (room), and can greatly improve the accuracy and performance of system sizing and design. Assuming a Room-to-Room Load Calculation has been done on a building, the next step in utilizing the Psychrometric Chart would be to plot out the Room Sensible Heat Ratio Lines for each zone. Room Sensible Heat Ratio (RSHR) is the ratio of sensible heat to total heat (including latent) for a room (or zone). If, for example, a room had a total heat load of 2,500 BTUh and 1,800 BTUh sensible heat, the RSHR would be 0.72.
RSHR = Room Sensible Load ÷ Room Total Load
RSHR = 1,800 BTUh ÷ 2,500 BTUh
RSHR = 0.72
Now that we know the RSHR, it’s time to plot the RSHR Line on the Psych Chart. To do this, we need to find a “reference dot”.
80℉ db at 50% RH is considered the standard reference dot. Locate and mark the reference dot and then run a line through the reference dot using a straight edge that is lined up with the RSHR (0.72), which can be found on the far right-hand side of the chart.
Now, locate the design conditions for the zone in question. Let’s say the design conditions (on a design day of 90℉) is 75℉ db at 50% RH. Plot that dot on the chart. Now, run a line straight through that dot heading to the left of the chart, making sure it is parallel to the reference line. This line is your RSHR Line. This line may now be used to select a supply air condition that will maintain the design room condition on a design day. However, the supply air condition must fall somewhere between the design room condition and dew point (which in this example is about 51.5℉). Theoretically, the lowest possible supply air condition would involve the evaporator coil in cool mode to be 51.5℉ (dew point), and the supply air leaving the register to be the same. However, this theory is in no way practical when you consider duct gains, air leakage, and bypass factors (let alone the fact no one wants a sweaty supply register). Practically, a supply condition falling somewhere between 80%-95% RH will result in good dehumidification, lower airflow, and low fan power consumption.
Select a supply temperature condition. For this example, let’s choose 55℉ at 90% RH. The next step is to calculate the Design Room CFM. The equation for CFM is as follows:
CFM = Room Sensible Load ÷ (1.08 x ΔT)
Remember, the Sensible Load for this zone is 1,800 BTUh. The difference between the Room Condition and the Supply Air Condition is 20℉.
CFM = 1,800 BTUh ÷ (1.08 x 20℉)
CFM = 83
The required volume of air given an hour of the runtime is 83 CFM for this room to maintain the design room air condition under design load.
But what if my ΔT is lower?
The required volume of air increases. The new supply air condition is 63℉ at 72% RH, giving us a ΔT of 12℉.
CFM = 1,800BTUh ÷ (1.08 x 12℉)
CFM = 139
Both of the different supply air selections will maintain the design room condition on a design day, because they each fall on the RSHR Line. But as the temperature difference between return and supply air decreases, the required CFM increases.
What is 1.08 supposed to be?
That is the product of the following equation:
Runtime (minutes) x Isobaric Air Density x Isobaric Specific Heat of Air
60 x 0.075 x 0.24 = 1.08
Some caveats must be addressed regarding this formula, and I credit Alex Meaney with Wrightsoft and Genry Garcia with Comfort Dynamics, Inc. for helping me understand these complexities. Both gentlemen are brilliant-minded experts in their fields, and have contributed (and continue to contribute) to HVAC School.
First, the runtime is specified in minutes, because we are solving for cubic feet per minute (CFM), but also using British Thermal Units per hour. Converting the hour of runtime to minutes gives us 60 minutes, and makes sure our units of measurement are compatible.
Second, you may notice the term isobaric. This refers to any property at a constant pressure. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is around 14.7 psia. At this presumed fixed pressure, the density of dry air is 0.075 lb/ft3, and the specific heat of dry air is 0.24 BTU/lb/℉.
In reality, atmospheric pressure is not fixed, and outdoor air is not always dry. While you may be able to correct for actual pressure and humidity, it may not always be practical. On the other hand, with the ability to use MeasureQuick (which corrects for air density and pressure in its calculations), the processes discussed in these articles may become more practical. It is important to note that manufacturers use isobaric air density and specific heat in their capacity ratings and airflow calculations. Therefore, the argument could also be made that even with this caveat, the end result will (on average) still land you nominally close to the actual air condition requirements. (Please note the wording used here) 😉
So how does this all circle back to practical application? It must be understood that a coil can operate in only one sensible heat ratio at a time, and it may not equate to any of the RSHRs calculated for any particular zone. In the case of a home with multiple zones, you may choose one of the following options when selecting a cooling coil to match the load conditions:
And that, in a nutshell, is how you may use a Psychrometric Chart and data from a Load Calculation to determine Room Design CFM. This exercise, however, merely scratches the surface of the many factors that must be considered in an HVAC system. This exercise works only for a system that does not suffer from duct leakage, bypass factor, and has no ventilation whatsoever for the home/building. This exercise would fall short of providing any real-world insight into psychrometric properties involving an HVAC system. However, the skills learned here translate into the next phase of advanced psychrometrics! In the next two articles, I will detail how these variables can be accounted for (even solved for). In the end, I hope you will understand a little more about Psychrometrics in general, and how to add that knowledge to your ability to efficiently diagnose a system as a whole (including the envelope and people).
I’ll end this article with a quote from Alex Meaney, and I think it is important to keep this idea in mind throughout the rest of this series of articles:
“I’m of the opinion that local humidity is usually a[n] infiltration/ventilation/return problem, not a supply problem.”
For access to the Testo Psych Chart I used for this article, click here.