# Tag: RH

## RH, DB and WB

I recently received a message asking for a discussion of RH. WB and DB. Time and time again I hear techs say that condensation occurs when “hot meets cold” which may be true in some cases but that is only a shorthand way to describe it and doesn’t really address what is going on when we see condensation and undesirable growth.

RH = Relative Humidity as in the percentage of humidity relative to the amount of moisture can hold at that temperature.

I like to think of it like sugar in a cup of coffee. The hotter the coffee the more sugar the coffee can hold.

When we say the air is “humid” we can mean it contains a lot of absolute moisture in grains or pounds or we can mean it is high “relative” humidity which is the more common meaning. 95 degree air at 50% RH contains far more moisture in lbs per lb of air than 65 degree air does at 50% RH does.

It’s a common misconception that hot air is more humid. While it’s true that hotter air can hold more moisture in the same way that hotter coffee can hold more sugar it does not mean hotter means more humid. In fact, if you heat a mass of air and the amount of moisture doesn’t change the RH will go down as the air gets warmer. This is why the RH coming out of the top of a furnace is lower than the RH going in. No change has occurred in the actual amount of moisture present, the air is just hotter and therefore lower in humidity relative to how much it can hold.

DB = Dry Bulb and is the temperature of air without taking account for evaporation / relative humidity

WB = Wet Bulb and is the temperature of the air with the evaporative effect of a “wet bulb” taken into account. Quite literally wet bulb temperature is the temperature a thermometer bulb will be when covered in a wet fabric and whirled in the air or placed in an air stream.

If the RH is below 100% the WB will always be lower that the DB. The differential between the DB and WB illustrates the RH. The higher the differential the lower the RH. The lower the differential the higher the RH. When DB and WB read the same then the RH is 100% and the air is “saturated” and no more evaporation can occur.

When air hits 100% RH the dry bulb and wet-bulb temperatures are the same and this point is known as “dewpoint”

— Bryan

## How to Reduce Indoor Humidity

Sometimes I beat around the bush too much in these tech tips, so let’s get right to the nitty-gritty! (as Nacho Libre would say)

Humidity inside a home should be maintained between 30% and 60% relative humidity.

I like to shoot for 50% in humid climates when possible (and by possible I mean financially feasible for the customer because anything is possible).

Causes of High Indoor Relative Humidity

• Low Heat Load / Short Equipment Run Time / System Oversizing
• High External Humidity Drivers / Humidity Entering the Home
• High Internal Humidity Drivers / Humidity Being Generated Inside the Home
• Poor or No Spot Ventilation in Kitchen’s and Bathrooms (or it Isn’t Being Run)
• High Evaporator Coil Temperature / High System SHR / High Evaporator Dew Point Temperature
• Insufficient Total Dehumidification Capacity
• Low Space Temperature
• Relying on the A/C alone to Dehumidify

This is the list of everything that causes high relative humidity in a home or building. Total humidity drops when you pull out more water than you put in and it increases when more moisture enters the space than you pull out.

Before we cover what to look for and how to fix it let’s first address some common fallacies that often crop up.

Truth = Lower Temperature Alone Means Higher Relative Humidity

The evaporator coil running below dew-point and water leaving the pan and going out the drain is what dehumidifies the space. This is called latent heat removal and it’s our friend when we are looking to drop the RH% in a space.

Sensible cooling is decreasing the space temperature and while this is a necessary part of comfort in most seasons, it is the enemy when it comes to dropping indoor RH%.

When air is cooled without being dehumidified the relative humidity in the space actually INCREASES because the lower the temperature the less water vapor the air can contain before turning into liquid water.

When we dehumidify with cooling equipment it is the water leaving the drain that matters (latent heat removal) not dropping the temperature of the space (sensible).

For dehumidification getting water out (latent heat removal) = good

dropping room temperature (sensible heat removal) = bad

Truth = Adding Insulation Will Decrease The Heat Load and Generally Increase the Relative Humidity

In order for an air conditioner to pull out humidity and drip it down the drain, it needs to run. In order for it to run it needs to be warm enough in the space for it to run.

When you add typical insulation in the ceiling, floors and walls you decrease the heat load without changing the humidity load. This will result in the RH% going up.

There are some insulation materials such as closed cell foam that will also act as an air & vapor barrier helping to block moisture from making it in. This can help reduce humidity but it is the air/vapor barrier portions that do it not the insulation.

Truth = Many Humidity Issues are Caused by Abnormally High Moisture Not the A/C

The air conditioner needs to be properly sized and selected with sensible and latent capacity that matches the building design. There are many cases where homes aren’t built or lived in exactly to design and cases where the weather doesn’t act like the models predict.

In Florida we have a lot of Hurricanes and tropical systems, In these cases we get tons of moisture, high winds that create big pressure differential across our homes and forces it in, low sensible temperatures so the A/C doesn’t run much and power outages that keep it from running for days in some cases.

For months afterward owners will complain of condensation, biological growth, high relative humidity etc… and everyone tries to “solve” the issue by messing with the air conditioning. These tropical weather events increase the amount of moisture in the home while at the same time impacting the ability of the equipment to remove the moisture.

My own house is another example of an extreme internal moisture condition. I have great insulation, good vapor and moisture barriers and excellent HVAC equipment (if I do say so myself).

However… I have 9 kids and we homeschool so they are home most of the day, we live in the country so we do tons of laundry (lot’s of dirt and mud) and we cook 3 meals a day at home …

Needless to say, our home has internal moisture loads that no model will be able to account for. This is why we added a whole-home dehumidifier to keep that humidity in check.

Final case study…

Many years ago I had a customer who always had high humidity in the main living area and the vents in the ceiling would sweat. I kept going back and messing with the equipment over and over and nothing I did seemed to help. I finally asked another tech and he laughed and said; “they have a pool don’t they?” I thought about it and sure enough, they did have a pool. “How did you know that?” I asked. He smiled and said “They are leaving the slider open when the kids play in the pool to keep an eye on things or they are in and out all time, that’s why the issue is always in that room”, I’ll be darned, he was right. You may be able to use a data logging humidity sensor to find these sorts of client caused intermittent issues.

What to Do About High Humidity

There are many approaches you can take on this depending on the types of tools you have at your disposal, as well as the severity and the budget and patience of your clients. I’m not going to give every possibility and test but here is what I would suggest for the average HVAC tech even if it makes my more hardcore building science friends cringe a bit.

1. Make sure you have a few good quality psychrometers/hygrometers. I use the Testo 605i as my go-to. Never trust a cheap tool with humidity measurement.
2. Ask the customer about how often they cook and note if they have a range hood that vents outdoors.
3. Ask the customer if they use bath vent fans when bathing and showering.
4. Look for roof leaks, proper grading around the home, ponding water etc…
5. Test the space humidity, temperature, and dewpoint at various locations around the home. Often you can find the source of an issue this way. keep in mind that the closer you get to the ceiling the dewpoint tends to increase due to that fact that water vapor is less dense than air.
6. Check the HVAC equipment in detail. When humidity is a challenge setting up the equipment for 350 CFM per ton is generally a good practice. Make sure it all wired properly if it is multi-stage or has dehumidification features. Confirm the system airflow, for newer equipment using the total system static and fan chart method is usually the easiest for a tech. I use the Testo 510 and 440dp for this.
7. Inspect the ductwork and seal any leaks. Leaking ducts cause pressure imbalance in the home and can either drive air in or out of the home.
8. Make sure there are no dryer vents, bath fans or kitchen ventilation leaking or discharging into attics or crawlspaces. Make sure the dryer vent is well-connected to the dryer.
9. Check and measure any incoming fresh through fresh air intakes, ERV’s or HRV’s. If it is too much it may be reduced but proper calculations and likely blower door testing will need to be done before reducing outdoor air.
10. Look for can lights, gaps around boots into the space, holes in walls between the attic and crawl space and the living space etc.. Sealing these can greatly reduce the moisture drivers.
11. Check seals, sweeps & weather stripping around doors and windows
12. Make an assessment if the equipment may be significantly oversized. If so then do a Manual J calculation to determine.
13. Discuss supplemental whole-home dehumidification with the customer, especially when the issue is a big priority for them.

The goals in inspecting the home and equipment is to make some of the following recommendations that can reduce indoor humidity when they are appropriate

• Run or Install Point Ventilation in the Kitchen and Baths to Remove Excess Moisture at the Source When in Use
• Alter Habits (like leaving doors open) That Lead to Moisture Issues
• Install New Weatherstripping and Door Sweeps
• Seal or Install Sealed Can Lights, Seal Around Boots and Seal Other Gaps Between Attic/Crawlspace and the Home or Walls
• Make HVAC System Settings Changes to Run Longer with a Colder Evaporator Coil (Reheat is an extreme example of this)
• Advise Properly Sizing Equipment or Installing Whole-Home Dehumidification Where Appropriate

Quick caution. It is possible to seal a building so tight that it can become unhealthy. Whenever sealing is in order it is best to do a before and after blower-door test on the space and decide if mechanical outdoor air needs to be brought in.

When this is the case I generally suggest a ventilating dehumidifier (and an ERC in some cases) in humid climates, otherwise, you can just make the situation worse.

Also keep in mind that when you run a colder coil the equipment, ducts and vents will be more likely to condensate as they will also be colder. While a colder coil will decrease the space humidity it may not be an option if it results in excessive equipment, duct and vent sweating. This is situation dependent and often dictated by where the equipment and ducts are installed… attics are the WORST for this.

When condensation occurs you can either drop the dew point (humidity) of the air around it or increase the temperature of the surface that is sweating. Sometimes decreasing the dewpoint of the air is very hard (like ducts in an attic) so we are left with increasing the temperature of the duct with either more insulation or warmer air going through it.

Another thing worth mentioning is that varible speed blowers and multi-stage compression paired with humidity controls can help a lot with the coil temperature and run time side of the equation. Even then, they aren’t a silver bullet to fix all issues and if you over promise you may end up with a dissatisfied customer.

Once more… For lower humidity in a home, you want..

• Longer run times
• Colder evaporator coil
• Less moisture coming in from outside
• Less moisture being generated from outside
• Higher indoor temperatures
• Extra moisture removal with dehumidification when required
• Spot ventilate when cooking or bathing

— Bryan

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