Tag: refrigeration

When we say that there is “flash gas” at a particular point in the system it can either be a bad thing or a good thing depending on where it is occurring.

Flash gas is just another term for boiling.

It is perfectly normal (and required) that refrigerant “flashes” or begins boiling directly after the metering device and as it moves through the evaporator coil. In order for us to transfer heat from the air into the refrigerant in large quantities we leverage the “latent heat transfer of vaporization”. In other words we transfer heat into the boiling refrigerant, or “flash gas”.

In a boiling pot of water we create flash gas by increasing the temperature of the water until it hits the boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure.

Inside of a refrigeration circuit we get flash gas when the pressure on the liquid refrigerant drops below the temperature / pressure saturation point or if the temperature of the refrigerant increases above the same point.

This “flashing” can occur in the liquid line when the liquid line is long or too small and also in cases with line kinks and clogged filter/driers. All of these instances result in a pressure drop and a drop in the saturation temperature.

It can also occur in the liquid line if it is run uninsulated through a space that is hotter than the liquid saturation temperature like on a hot roof or in an unconditioned attic. This is more rare and will generally only cause flashing in conjunction with another issue.

This flashing can be prevented by keeping line lengths and tight bends to a minimum, insulating the liquid line where it runs through very hot spaces and keeping the refrigerant dry and clean with one properly sized filter/drier.

It can also be prevented in most cases by maintaining the proper levels of subcooling. A typical system that has 10°+ of subcooling will not experience flashing in the liquid line under normal conditions.

When you walk up to a liquid line near the evaporator and you hear that hissing/surging noise or when you look in a sight glass and see bubbles you are seeing refrigerant that is at saturation, meaning it is a mix of vapor and liquid. This doesn’t necessarily mean it is “flash gas”, it could very well be that the refrigerant was never fully condensed to liquid in the condenser in the first place. This can be due to low refrigerant charge and in these cases the subcool will be at 0° Even when taken at the condenser.

True liquid line “flash gas” issues are cases where you have measurable subcooling at the condenser coil outlet but still see, hear or measure boiling/flashing refrigerant in the liquid line before the metering device.

— Bryan

 

Let’s take a deeper dive into the magic that is gas defrost..

Most techs who are familiar with heat pumps understand the basics of a gas defrost but when we apply this strategy to a larger system where we’re only reversing a small part of the system while we need to add some controls and valves to get the job done optimally.

Since we’re already familiar with the basics of defrost systems and controls, I’m not going to dwell on things like frequency or duration of defrost but we will get into some unique terminations methods and defrost efficacy testing that only work with reverse cycle defrosts.

There are 2 basic types of gas defrosts.   Hot gas defrost where superheated discharge gas is directed into the evaporator and “Kool gas” a trademarked name for a defrost that directs saturated vapor from the top of the receiver unto the evaporator.    Each have advantages and disadvantages but both work essentially the same way.

So, defrost starts and a whole lot starts happening at once.   3 electrically actuated valves all have to work together to make this happen.

First, we need to create a pressure differential between the gas we’re sending into the evaporator and the liquid line.   This is to allow that gas to flow through the evaporator and back into the liquid line.  There are many different valves that are applied to do this and an in depth treatment of each valve isn’t really possible here, so we’ll just look at the 2 most common places they’re applied.

Discharge line

This is more common on hot gas defrost system as opposed to Kool gas systems.  A valve is installed in the discharge line that, when activated, creates a pressure differential.

Liquid line 

Same thing, really.   This valve will work for either but is really necessary for a Kool gas system.   A discharge differential won’t work for Kool gas.

 

Regardless of the location in the system, the valve is typically adjusted for an 18-20 PSI (1.24 bar – 1.47 bar) differential setting.   If your equipment is significantly higher than your evaporator this may need to be set even higher.  We’ll get into a method to test this and ensure that the defrost is working properly towards the end of the article.

Differential created, we now need to direct defrost gas to the evaporator.   To do this, we have 2 valves.   One that stops flow from the suction line into the compressors and one that directs gas into the suction line and back towards the evaporator.   At the same time the differential valve activates, both of these valves activate and start the defrost process.

 

Photo caption:  the grey bodied valve, installed in the vertical line stops refrigerant flow to the compressors.   The brass valve installed on the horizontal line opens to admit hot gas to the evaporator.

Out in the evaporator, we’ve got a check valve piped to bypass the TEV

 

 not visible in this photo is the actual check valve.   The line leaving the distributor allows condensed liquid to leave the coil, bypass the metering device and re-enter the liquid line through a check valve.

 

Last thing is that, with all this heat being forced into the evaporator we normally want to turn the evaporator fans off and sometimes turn on small heaters to prevent water running off the coil from freezing on a cold drain pan.   Using either a pressure switch that cycles

Let’s “follow the gas” and try to visualize what’s happening during this defrost.   So, we’re sending high pressure, superheated vapor into a cold suction line.   That gas immediately starts rejecting heat into the surrounding pipe and any frost or ice that’s in contact with it.  Remember, we’re going backward, so we hit the outlet of the evaporator and we’re heating it up, melting that frost away and rejecting heat from the gas all the way.   As we continue to pass through the evaporator, we’re going to reach a point where we’ve rejected enough heat to condense and possibly to even subcooling as a liquid.  Eventually, we reach the metering device and are routed through a check valve that bypasses that and winds up in the liquid line.  With a Kool gas defrost, we aren’t starting with superheated vapor, but the concept remains the same.  Warm, saturated vapor is sent to the evaporator where it condenses and is subcooled and forced back into the liquid line.

As liquid is condensed and pushed through the check valve, more and more hot gas is allowed into the evaporator to provide more heat to completely defrost the coil.  Without the pressure differential, we wouldn’t be able to push the liquid out of the coil because a pressure differential is required for anything to flow.

Is one ‘better’ than the other?

One drawback to hot gas defrost is the expansion and contraction of refrigerant lines due to temperature swings can be extreme if the lines run far enough.  Remember that copper can expand over an inch per 100’ of pipe with a 100°F(55°K) change in temperature, so we have to consider the expansion and movement of the piping.

Using a Kool gas defrost helps with the pipe expansion problems but tends to have less heat available for defrost and, combined with a modern push to lower compression ratios for efficiencies sake, can have problems clearing the whole coil during colder weather.

So, what can go wrong??

Sounds like a great system.  We’re reusing heat that would ultimately be wasted to melt frost from a coil.   Economically and ecologically awesome, right?

As with any complex system, there are multiple points of failure.  If any of the 3 electrically activated valves fail to operate either because of a control system fault or a mechanical problem with the valve itself, we set ourselves up for trouble.

If the differential valve fails, we won’t have an adequate flow of refrigerant to get enough heat for a complete defrost.  Similarly, if the solenoid valve that opens to allow defrost gas into the suction fails to completely open, we won’t have enough flow.

If the suction stop solenoid fails to close, we’ll can see a range of problems from inadequate defrost from the amount of bleed through to a complete failure to close that allows all of the defrost gas to flow straight into the compressors.   You can see this same problem if the hot gas solenoid fails to close properly after a defrost.

 

Testing defrost

 

I promised earlier that I’d give a method to test gas defrosts to ensure that they’re working properly.

For this test to work properly, we need a coil that is free of large ice buildup but that has a ‘normal’ frost on it.   If I’m troubleshooting a particularly difficult system, I’ll first clear all ice from the coil, then disable defrost overnight and return in the morning to ensure that I have the right conditions to test the defrost.

Now, I’ll connect a thermometer to the line that bypasses the TEV at the evaporator and allow that to stabilize.  I really like to use a thermometer that record Min/Max readings for this job. You can also take the temperature on the line leaving the evaporator or really anywhere along the liquid line that is dedicated 100% to that circuit.   It that line runs all the way back to the compressor unit, you can test it there although the further from the evaporator you measure the temperature, the less accurate the test becomes.

Make a note of the temperature in your notebook and go start a defrost.   Monitor this temperature and a distinct pattern should emerge if defrost is functioning properly.   The temperature will hold stable for a couple minutes.  Typically this is already pretty cold because we’re in a refrigerated space, then it will start to drop.   I will normally see a start temperature in the low ‘teens’ here and expect within 2-4 minutes to see it dropping and it will hit a low of -2°F to -6°F(-18.8°C to -21.1°C) ).  This is a rush of liquid that has condensed in the evaporator and has rejected so much heat that it is very subcooled.

This temperature will then start to rise as there is less and less frost to absorb heat from the gas.  Once all the frost is gone, this will start rising pretty rapidly.   Once it hits 65°F (18.33°C) on newer equipment and 75°F (23.88°C) or so on older equipment, you can be sure that there is no frost left on the equipment and that any further defrost is just wasting time and is detrimental to equipment operation and possibly to product shelf life.

Much of the timing depends on the length of the suction line and the amount of frost buildup on the coil.   A shorter suction line will result in a faster temperature drop while more frost on the coil will result in a slower but deeper dip in temperature before it starts back up.

This is also probably the best method to use to terminate this type of defrost.   Monitor that temperature using whatever means available to you and, once the liquid temperature rises above either a manufacturer’s predetermined setting or one that you’ve field determined through testing, you can end defrost.

–Jeremy Smith CMS

 

 

 


I don’t do much in the way of “rack” refrigeration, but I recently had a conversation with experienced rack refrigeration tech Jeremy Smith and he got me thinking about EPR valves.

I’ve heard EPR (Evaporator pressure regulator) valves called suction regulators or hold back valves. In essence they hold back against the suction line to maintain a set evaporator evaporation or boiling temperature.

In refrigeration rack systems EPR valves play a vital role in ensuring that the product is cooled consistently and nearly constantly.

In an A/C system we have a TXV that maintains a constant superheat at the evaporator outlet. The evaporator temperature itself will fluctuate up and down depending on load.

In a refrigeration case you must first ensure you have full line of liquid using a sight glass or by checking subcooling. Then you make sure the case has proper airflow etc… then you set the EPR to maintain the proper coil evaporation temperature (by holding back pressure as needed) and then you check and / or set the TXV to the proper superheat. This ensures BOTH proper coil feeding as well as proper coil temperature.

Pretty cool right? (Pun intended)

— Bryan

refrigeration_for_AC_Techs

In this episode of HVAC School Bryan talks with Jeremy Smith and they discuss

  • Reznor startup
  • Being on call in the refrigeration world
  • differences and similarities between rack refrigeration and A/C
  • Hot gas and electric defrost
  • Glycol refrigeration systems
  • Subcool and Superheat
  • Refrigeration TXV settings
  • EPR valves and their settings
  • Rack manifold pressure

And Much more…

As always if you have an iPhone subscribe HERE and if you have an Android phone subscribe HERE

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