Tag: subcooling

The primary role of setting an appropriate level of subcooling is to ensure that we deliver a full line of liquid refrigerant to the metering device.

We want to do this at –

  • A pressure differential required by the metering device
  • At a temperature and pressure no higher than required for maximum capacity and efficiency

But most important is that it is 100% liquid with no “flashing” or bubbles when it hits that metering device. Any amount of refrigerant that is already vapor when it hits the metering device is wasted energy and unwanted turbulence leading to noise and additional pressure drop.

We are generally safe to set the subcooling level listed on a the system data tag or the old 10° rule of thumb when you have nothing else to go  on.

We need to consider the adjusting the target subcooling in the following cases  –

  • Long lines or tall risers
  • Liquid lines run through high temperature environments

As soon as the pressure or temperature of the refrigerant in the liquid line hits the saturation point, bubbles will begin to form and the the dreaded “flashing”.

Let’s consider an example –

R410a system with a 110° liquid line saturation pressure (368 PSIG) with 5° of subcooling at the condenser so the liquid line is 105° but it’s a 100′ run of line with 20′ of rise and then through a hot attic that is 120°

First we can estimate the pressure drop of the rise based on the York / Johnson Controls rule of 1/2 psi of drop per ft of rise so this means we would see a 10 PSI pressure drop in the riser alone. Depending on the size of the liquid line there would be an additional pressure drop but it would not be significant so lets just estimate a 15 PSI total pressure drop and 2° of sensible heat gain into the liquid line due to the hot attic.

This would mean the liquid line would now be 107° and the liquid saturation temperature would also be at 107° due to the pressure drop from 368 to 353 PSI.

In other words the refrigerant could now begin flashing

In long long line applications Carrier instructs you to charge to 10° of subcooling or the listed subcooling whichever is greater becasue at 10° you have enough wiggle room to deal with most residential / light commercial situations.

In heavy commercial applications there are routinely longer line runs and the actual field pressure drops and temperature gains must be calculated to ensure flashing will not occur in the liquid line. Often this requires a higher subcooling.

— Bryan

 

I was fresh out of school working as an apprentice at my first real HVAC job and I was listening in on a shop conversation between a few techs.

They were talking about finding so many overcharged systems and one of the techs turns to me and says “I had a unit yesterday that was so overcharged it was running minus five degrees of superheat”. I don’t remember EXACTLY what I said in response to that but it started a miniature argument and set me on a crusade against misinformation that led me here all these years later.

When in doubt check your tools

Before we move on I want to mention something that Jeremy Smith pointed out to me. When working with a zeotropic refrigerant blend that has “glide” the change from liquid to vapor and vapor to liquid occurs over a range of temperatures and not at a single temperature. When calculating superheat we use the “Dewpoint” and when calculating subcool we use “Bubble Point” the saturation temperature is the range of temperatures between those two points meaning that it could be “interpreted” as negative superheat or subcool when it is actually just in the saturated range. In air conditioning, the traditional R22 and R410a refrigerants do not have any significant glide but newer blends do so it is something to watch out for.

Here is a list of things that if you observe them, it will be worth checking your tools to make sure they are set up correctly, connected correctly and properly calibrated BEFORE you start making an exotic diagnosis.

Negative Superheat   

Superheat is the temperature gained in the refrigerant once it is completely boiled into a vapor. When it is still in the process of boiling it will be in a mixed state and will be at saturation temperature for that given pressure. Zero superheat is something you will see often when a system has a flooded coil and liquid still boiling in the suction line. While this generally isn’t a good thing it is something that you will observe from time to time and will usually result in you as the tech taking corrective action.

Negative superheat goes by another name SUBCOOLING and the only way a substance can be in the subcooled range is if it is 100% liquid and has given off additional heat below the saturated (mixed) state. It is impossible in a running air conditioning system for the suction line to be 100% liquid subcooled below saturation, therefore it is impossible to have negative superheat both by definition or in practice.

So what happens when you measure negative superheat you may ask? Good question.

It is one of a few possibilities

  1. You are looking at the wrong refrigerant PT scale
  2. The refrigerant is mixed (somebody put something in on top of the original refrigerant)
  3. You are dealing with a blended refrigerant with “glide” like many of the new 4 series blends such as R407c
  4. Your suction gauge is reading too high
  5. Your line clamp thermometer is reading too low
  6. You do not have a good connection on the line / schrader core isn’t depressing / king valve isn’t open
  7. A combination of the items listed above

Negative Subcooling 

Just like we mentioned above, negative subcooling is superheating. There is no such thing as negative subcooling.

Is it possible for the liquid line to contain superheated vapor? It is THEORETICALLY possible but not practical. For example, if someone short circuit nearly the entire condensing coil and connected to the liquid line you could see superheated vapor…. but let’s be realistic.

When techs measure a negative subcooling (superheat) at the liquid line it could be

  1. You are looking at the wrong refrigerant PT scale
  2. The refrigerant is mixed (somebody put something in on top of the original refrigerant)
  3. You are dealing with a blended refrigerant with “glide” like many of the new 4 series blends such as R407c
  4. Your high side gauge is reading too low
  5. Your line clamp thermometer is reading too high
  6. You do not have a good connection on the line / schrader core isn’t depressing / king valve isn’t open
  7. A combination of the items listed above

Liquid Line Cooler than the Outdoor Air 

There are two cases where the liquid line can be cooler than the outdoor air when measured at the condenser outlet

  1. A Wet Coil
  2. A restriction inside the condenser cabinet in the liquid line, usually in a factory installed filter drier

Because the liquid line temperature will often be VERY close to the outdoor temperature on new, high-efficiency system this is often a point where you will measure a liquid line as colder than the outdoor air when that may not really be the case.

Often you may SEE a liquid line colder than outdoor ambient and it may be simply be

  1. Miscalibration of the line clamp or the ambient air thermometer
  2. Measurement of the ambient air in sunlight where the probe can be affected by sunlight
  3. The coil is still damp after cleaning or a rain (evaporative cooling)

It is always a good practice to have a backup set of thermometers and gauges so you can double check the calibration of your tools against one another. Whenever possible, test them under the conditions that you are using them.

If you have two clamps, place them on the same line right next to one another, when testing two air probes, stick them both in the same return air stream side by side. For temperature measurement you may also test in an ice bath just make sure that the water is pure and that the water and ice are fully mixed and circulating when you test for 32°F(0°C) degrees.

Also, keep in mind that every measurement device has “uncertainty” in the measurement of +/- a certain amount depending on the tool. Don’t expect your tools to provide a greater accuracy than what is published in their specifications.

— Bryan

 

Testo 570 Premium Manifold

This is the article you read BEFORE you call and ask a senior tech what your subcool should be, or the one you send to a junior tech when the call and ask you.

So what is subcooling? (or subcool as many call it)

Subcooling is a measurement of temperature DECREASE of a liquid below its saturation (mixed liquid/vapor) temperature at a given pressure.

For example, water boils at 212° Fahrenheit at sea level (atmospheric pressure of 14.7 PSIA). If water is at 212°f and at atmospheric pressure at sea level you can be sure it is at saturation, which means it is either in the process of boiling or condensing. If you measure that same water and it is at 202° you can be sure that it is fully liquid and that it is no longer in the process of either boiling (changing from liquid to vapor) or condensing (Changing from vapor to liquid). Because the water is at 202°  instead of 212° we know it is liquid and we can also say it is subcooled by 10°. This 10° of subcooling PROVES that not only is it fully liquid but that it has given up more sensible heat energy enough to drop 10° below the boiling temperature at that pressure.

With refrigerant, we measure the subcooling between the condenser and the metering device and it gives us a lot of information. It not only tells us whether or not the line is full of liquid it gives us indications of refrigerant charge as well as condenser efficiency when viewed in conjunction with the condensing temperature (high side saturation temperature). Now be careful, like with all measurements, it is only as accurate as your tools, it must be taken using liquid line pressure and temperature (Line between the condenser and metering device) NOT discharge line pressure and temperature (line between the compressor and the condenser) AND you must have a good connection to the port. I can’t tell you how many times green techs have called me with “crazy” readings only to find out their hose was not depressing the Schrader core fully.

So what should it be?

Generally speaking 10° – 12° of subcooling at the outlet of the condenser coil is most common but you must look for the proper design subcooling for the particular system you are working on. Some systems will require subcooling readings of up to 16° for maximum efficiency and capacity.

Many techs will say that subcooling  is how you “set a charge” on a TXV / TEV / EEV metering device system

Subcooling is one of many factors you consider when setting a charge but you first need to make sure that your equipment is properly matched with the correct metering device. The air flow is set in properly, the blower, air filter, condensing coil and evaporator coils are clean and WHENEVER adding or removing charge use a scale so you can monitor your progress.

While it is true that subcooling is the primary charging measurement on a TXV /TEV / EEV system, subcooling is important to check on every system, every time you connect (whenever possible).

Negative Subcooling isn’t possible if the liquid line temperature and pressure are taken at the same point. What is possible is to have a miscalibration of your tools that make a zero subcooling look like a negative subcooling.

Zero Subcooling means that the refrigerant in the liquid line is a mix of liquid and vapor, this is not an acceptable condition except in cases where the system is designed to inject discharge gas into the liquid line on purpose to increase liquid pressure (headmaster).

Low Subcooling is an indication that not enough refrigerant is contained or “packed” in the condenser. This can be due to undercharge, poor compression, or a metering device oversized or failing open (overfeeding).

High Subcooling is an indication that more than the designed amount of refrigerant is “Backing up” or “packed” into the condenser.  This can be caused by overcharge, restriction (such as a contaminated line drier or kinked liquid line) or an undersized or failing closed metering device.

Keep in mind, the subcooling can often read in range on a system that still has issues. Many times this is because the previous tech simply “set the charge” by subcooling without fully testing all aspects of the equipment such as airflow.

— Bryan

Jim Bergmann and I recorded a podcast for HVAC School that covered when and how to check the refrigerant circuit without connecting gauges. Listener Joe Reinhard listened several times and wrote up this summary of what he gained from the episode. I edited it lightly but most of this is his work. Thank you so much Joe!

Keep in mind that when we make Fahrenheit to Celsius conversions we use K (Kelvin) to show temperature difference like splits and DTD and we use C (Celsius) to show measured temperatures.


Following mostly from two 45-50 minute podcasts from https://hvacrschool.com/checking-charge-without-gauges-podcast/ discussions between Bryan Orr HVACR School.com, expert tech, teacher, & business owner, andJim Bergmann, renowned HVAC-R expert & teacher, from Redfish instruments and the MeasureQuick app, providing a detailed explanation of why techs should not connect gauges & hoses to system just to check refrigerant charge (in many cases).

Why Not Connect?

The benefits of NOT connecting gauges during every visit for HVAC-R business owners, technicians, and clients include:

  1.  Non-invasive measurements with only temperature data taken. Exact same way one checks if a typical refrigerator was operating properly which has no ports to attach hoses and gauges.  
  2. Just measuring DTDs (Design Temperature Differences) and line set piping temperatures are non-invasive, involve less liability both for the system and technician safety, and demonstrates technical knowledge and best practices.   
  3. Better for the refrigeration system and the environment (“green”) since it saves R22 and R410A released to atmosphere.
  4. Time savings at site so techs can concentrate on better and more preventative maintenance (PM) of the air flow system (including condensate drainage) and PM checking electrical characteristics of various control components (capacitors, contactors, sequencers, etc.,.)
  5. Eliminate more call backs and potential premature system cooling (and heating for heat pumps) performance problems and failures due to cross contamination, moisture contamination and lost refrigerant.
  6. Saves the customer money on refrigerant added due to connection losses.


Term Definitions 

  • Evaporator DTD (Design Temperature Difference) is the designed difference between the evaporator coil saturation/boiling temperature as measured on the suction gauge and the return air temperature. 35°f (1.66°C)of difference is considered normal for a typical system set at 400 CFM(679.6 m3/h) per ton airflow. Oversized evaporator coils and increased airflow above 400 CFM(679.6 m3/h) per ton will result in lower DTD and lower airflow with smaller coils will result in higher DTD.
  • Condenser CTOA (Condensing Temperature Over Ambient) is the temperature difference between the condensing coil saturation / condensing temperature as measured on the liquid line high side gauge and the outdoor temperature. This difference will vary depending on the efficiency of the system/efficiency of the condenser coil.

6 – 9 SEER Equipment (Very Old) = 30° CTOA

10 -12 SEER Equipment = 25° CTOA

13 – 14 SEER Equipment = 20° CTOA

15 SEER+ Equipment = 15° CTOA

  • Delta T (Evaporator Split) is the temperature difference between the return and supply air. Delta T will vary quite a bit depending on airflow and indoor relative humidity. This chart shown below is designed for a 400 CFM(679.6 m3/h) per ton system. Lower airflow will result in a higher delta t and higher airflow will result in a lower delta t. This is why Jim Bergmann does not prefer Delta T as a firm diagnostic or commissioning tool but rather as an approximation of airflow.
  • Target Superheat on a TXV system is dictated by the design of the TXV. Usually target superheat on a TXV system will be 5°f- 15°f (2.75°K – 8.25°K) at the outlet of the evaporator where the TXV bulb is located. On a piston system the target superheat is calculated using a superheat chart and measuring and plotting the outdoor dry bulb temperature and the indoor wet bulb temperature.
  • Target Subcooling on a TXV system will be listed by the manufacturer but is generally between 8° – 14°(4.4°K – 7.7°K)subcool. Subcooling will vary quite a bit on fixed orifice systems but 5°-20°(2.75°K – 11°K) is a common range.

DTDs (Design Temperature Difference) of the coils, after a system is newly commissioned orfirst-time assessed with gauges, should not change over the life of the sealed refrigeration system once a system has been charged correctly unless one or more of the following has developed:  

  1. Airflow restriction with dirt buildup as main cause – dirty outdoor coil, dirty indoor coil, dirty filter,  dirty blower blades/inside the housing, Return/Supply duct restrictions, blower motor speed or operation problems, and if the homeowner installs a so-called high efficiency, nothing-gets-thru-including-air filter.
  2. Critical component failure.
  3. Refrigerant flow restriction.  

So after the first-time visit performance assessment or a new system is commissioned, subsequent system checkups or maintenance visits should be performed without connecting gauges.    

The following risks, problems, and liabilities occur and eventually develop when technicians attach gauge hoses every time to check the system refrigerant characteristics versus just using measured system temperatures and knowledge of Return/Supply air TD, Evaporator/Condenser split, and refrigerant P/Ts.   Not attaching hoses & gauges to systems without good reason is actually correct practice and the following could be avoided or greatly minimized.

  1. Techs are inducing system contamination if, prior to connecting the hoses the techs didnotuse dry nitrogen to purge air, moisture, and/or old refrigerant out of their hoses & manifold from the prior system the gauges were attached.  Perhaps the prior system had a different refrigerant that may/may not have been contaminated with non-condensables and other refrigerant(s)
  2. Were the hoses on the gauges left open to the atmosphere in the back of the truck used for the prior R410A system?  If so, the coating of POE (polyester) refrigerant oil (highly hygroscopic) would have absorbed moisture which, if not correctly purged with dry nitrogen, would contaminate systems by inputting moisture which will cause TXV and liquid filter-drier freeze ups (blockages), cause contaminated refrigerant (making R22 recycle subject to high fees and fines), and cause acids which will attack and corrode compressor surfaces (copper plating), valves, and windings.  Hoses should always be tightly connected to the manifold parking ports to prevent moisture contamination.
  3. Are techs properly & carefully disconnecting gauge hoses while the system is running?   If not, perhaps a service call back will shortly occur since, every time hoses are connected and disconnected, some refrigerant is lost.  If the liquid hose is not charged back through the manifold and Suction hose, several ounces or more in the liquid hose are lost if techs inadvertently or on purpose blow or dump refrigerant by not properly disconnecting gauge hoses while the system is running.  This occurs if techs are inexperienced or decide not to take the time or are not equipped with low-loss-ball-valve hose end fittings to slowly, carefully, after purging hoses if needed, charge from the liquid hose (holds 7x the R410A as the vapor or suction line; 10X for R22) through the gauge manifold into the vapor or suction hose back into the running system.  If this procedure is not done correctly, air and moisture can enter the system.   After one, two, or three years of visits, techs can be chasing “leak(s)” created by multiple connects/disconnects.  
  4. Caps no longer inadvertently left off on Schrader valve ports leading to leaks.
  5. Reduced safety issues for techs since less chance of refrigerant in eyes and frozen-fingers and loss refrigerant to the atmosphere.

Data to recordduring first-time system performance assessments and new system commissioning using refrigerant gauges so that benchmarks exist to compare to future checkup visits but without attaching gauge hoses if no observed or reported system problem reasons.  

  1. TD or Temperature Difference between the Return air dry-bulb (DB) and Supply air DB.   TD level depends on the sensible & latent heat content of the inside air.  Higher TD for low RH% (Relative Humidity), lower TD for high RH%.  20°F (11°K)  TD is good if system operating properly at 75°F(23.88°C), 50% RH and set for 400 CFM/(679.6 m3/h)ton.  If reduce CFM/( m3/h) ton, TD increases, but if RH% increases, the TD decreases back-and-forth so the TD can range 16°f – 24°f(8.8°K – 13.2°K) (or more in extreme cases, see the Delta T chart)    
  2. Evaporator DTD (Design Temperature Difference), also called “Split”, is temp difference between the Return air dry-bulb (DB) temp and the refrigerant saturation temp of the coil – either 35°F(1.66°C) at 400 CFM/(679.6 m3/h) ton to 525 CFM/(891.98 m3/h)ton or 40°F(4.44°C) at 350 CFM/(594.65 m3/h) ton.  
  3. Evaporator outlet SLT (Suction Line Temp) and SH (SuperHeat) On a TXV system the superheat range 5°f(2.75°K) to 15°f(8.25°K) depending on factory setting +/– 5°F(2.75°K) of 10°f(5.5°K).   Fixed-bore or piston reading depends on inside heat load, Return air WB, and outside air DB temp
  4. TESP (Total External Static Pressure) inches WC of the air handlerbetween non-turbulent point in Return plenum before a clean filter and in the Supply plenum non-turbulent area.  With caution, drill 3/8”-1/2” holes to cover when done with vinyl or plastic professional looking plugs. On a furnace drill above the filter for the return reading and between the furnace and the coil for the supply reading. Note if the coil was wet or dry since TESP changes. 
  5. Pressure Drop  “wc across thefilter.
  6. Pressure Drop  “wc across theEvaporator coil, note if wet or dry coil, and plug holes.
  7. Indoor Blower motor (IBM) running load amps (RLAs) compared to nameplate Rated or Full Load Amps (FLA) with the panels on.
  8. SLT and SH at the Condenser (Compressor inlet).  SH within +/– 5°f(2.75°K)  is acceptable. For a TXV, superheat average 10°f(5.5°K) plus additional 1-3°F (.55°K – 1.65°K)of SH the Suction/Vapor line absorbs (as measured).  For a fixed-bore or piston Metering Device at the indoor coil, a total “target SH” is determined by outdoor DB and indoor WB temps.  
  9. Condenser DTD or Split is temp difference between the refrigerant saturation temp and the DB temp of air at entering middle of the coil. As SEER increases, condenser surface areas are larger but are limited by diminishing heat transfer capability as the temperature difference between the outdoor air and the coil temperature decrease.  
  10. LLT (Liquid Line Temp) and SC (SubCooling) at the Condenser outlet.   SC within +/– 3 °f(1.65°K)  is acceptable. Ex. for 85°f(29.4°C) ambient, 13 SEER with a 20°f(11°k) DTD split, and 10° (5.5°k) Subcool nameplate, the Liquid Line temp = 95°f(35°C)  = 85°f(29.44°C) outdoor + 20°f(11°k) CTOA  – 10°f(5.5°K) Subcooling ).
  11. Compressor and OFM running load amps (RLA) compared to nameplate Rated and Full Load Amps (FLA), respectively.  
  12. Measured suction temperature differential between the suction line leaving the evaporator and entering the compressor in °f. So if the suction line is 50°f (10°C) inside and 53°f (11.66°C) outside there would be a 3°f (1.65°K) temperature rise.
  13. Measured liquid temperature differential between the liquid line leaving the condenser and entering the metering device in °f. So if the liquid line is 95°f (35°C) outside and 92°f (33.33°C) inside there would be a 3°f (1.65°K) temperature drop.

Again, benchmarked DTDs, SHs, SC, and ESPs should not change during the life of the system unless one or more of the following has developed:  

  1. Air flow restriction
  2. Component failure
  3. Refrigerant flow restriction  

Data to recordduring follow-up seasonal checkup visits and compare to benchmark data.  See if problems have or are developing and show improvement after any services are performed which offers value to clients/customers paying for the service call or membership fee.  Service could be simple as a filter change, coil cleaning, and blower maintenance but, since have more time for PM, also identify potential electrical parts failures and inform clients to choose to fix now or later.

  1. TD between the Return air dry-bulb (DB) and Supply air DB.  Should be in 16-24°F(8.8°K – 13.2°K) range depending upon sensible & latent heat content of inside air (see chart).  
  2. Evaporator outlet SLT.  If a TXV, should be within +/– 5°f(2.75°K)  of benchmark reading.   Fixed-bore or piston reading depends on inside heat load, Return air WB, and outside air DB temp.  More practical SLT determine at outdoor coil Suction/Vapor line.
  3. TESP (Total External Static Pressure) “wc of the air handler and note if wet or dry coil.
  4. Static Pressure Drop “wc across thefilter and re-plug holes (or visually inspect / replace)
  5. Static Pressure Drop “wc across theEvaporator coil, note if wet or dry coil, and re-plug holes.
  6. SLT at the Condenser (Compressor inlet). For an indoor TXV, should be within +/– 5°f(2.75°K)  of benchmark reading.  For fixed-bore or piston indoor coil Metering Device, determine total “target SH” from outdoor DB and indoor WB temps.  
  7. LLT (Liquid Line Temp) and SC (SubCooling) at the Condenser outlet.   LLT using SEER-rating split, should be within +/– 3°f(1.65°K)  of benchmark reading. Outdoor air temperature + CTOA based on system efficiency – subcooling = target liquid line temperature

Other notes:

Always use pre-tested, calibrated (as possible) digital thermometers to measure air temps and line set pipe temps or insulated temp sensors.  Do not depend upon the space thermostat to accurately represent inside air temps since could be Return duct leakage, bypass ducts not dampered correctly, and air handler cabinet leaks e.g. holes/gaps at indoor coil line set inlet affecting the Return air temp.  

Air flow through/across Evaporator and Condenser coils will only decrease and not “magically” increase. The primary reason is dirt accumulation on air flow components e.g. coil fins, indoor filter, indoor blower blades, outdoor fan blades.  Other reasons include leaky air handler cabinets from gaps at Return & Supply duct connections, holes at line set inlet to Evaporator cabinet, and a bypass duct with no damper to close off air flow between Supply and Return in Cooling mode.

Systems should not be benchmarked with a wet Condenser coil or if the LLT is at or below the outdoor ambient air DB temperature.

Use a battery or cord operated leaf blower to dry out the coil in 5-10 minutes.  

The only action that increases airflow is increasing the fan or blower RPM or speed.   If Suction line supposed to be 54°F(12.22°C) (40°F(4.44°C) coil + 10°f(5.5k)  SH if TXV + say 2F SH addl to Vapor line length) but is 47-48°F(25.85°K – 26.4°K), look for indoor air flow restriction issues.   The evaporator is like a boiling pot of water but a sealed system so if the burner heat is turned up, pressures and temperatures increase. More than additional 24°f(1.1°K – 2.2°K)  Superheat at the Compressor inlet, probably better insulate the Vapor line.

Maximum inlet temperature Suction line at Compressor inlet should be below 65°f(18.33°C) .   If not, the Compressor will have the potential overheat and oil breakdown can occur do to excessive discharge superheat / temperature.

TXV designed to maintain 5-15°f(2.75°K – 8.25°K) superheat (10°f(5.5°K) given +/- 5°f(2.75°K) range) but only at the Evaporator outlet or where the sensing bulb is located on the suction line.  Some SH is added to the suction line before gets to the Compressor inlet.   However, if the line set is located in a 145°F(62.77°C) attic and Vapor line not well insulated, significant SH gain will be seen at the Compressor inlet. Vapor line needs good insulation (also for Heath Pumps in Heating mode) e.g. with thicker tubing insulation and/or using a foil-bubble wrap or “Reflectix” attached with foil tape since reflects IR heat.

Summary of the Jim Bergmann / Bryan Orr Podcast on checking the charge without using gauges by Joe Reinhard

P.S. – As mentioned in the podcast the Testo 605i and the 115i make a great pairing to check a system in the way described above

You can now do ALL of these calculations easily with the MeasureQuick app at MeasureQuick.com/downloadnow

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